When it comes to gathering cultural information from patients, nurses have a few different  methods at their disposal. One is simply to ask questions about the patient’s cultural background, which  can yield valuable insights. Another is to observe the patient’s cultural behaviors, which can provide clues  about their background and beliefs. Additionally, nurses can talk to the patient’s family and friends to  learn more about their culture, and they can also read books and articles on the subject. Finally, attending  cultural events that the patient participates in can also help get to know them better. Overall, there are  several different ways that nurses can gather cultural information from patients. By taking the time to  learn about their culture, nurses can provide better care that is tailored to the needs of their patients. 

Cultural competence is the ability to understand, communicate with, and effectively work with  people from different cultures. Healthcare providers need to be culturally competent to provide better  patient care. When healthcare providers can understand and connect with their patients on a cultural level,  they are more likely to be able to provide better care and achieve better outcomes. Patients are more likely  to feel comfortable and respected, and they are more likely to comply with their treatment plan (Purnell &  Fenkl, 2020). Additionally, culturally competent healthcare providers are better able to understand and  address the unique needs of their patients. Several benefits come from providing culturally competent  care. Patients are more likely to be satisfied with their care, and they are more likely to have better health  outcomes. Additionally, culturally competent care can help to reduce disparities in healthcare. When  everyone has access to culturally competent care, everyone can benefit. 

There are many ways in which a nurse demonstrates cultural competency in nursing practice. One  way is by providing culturally competent care (Sharifi, Adib-Hajbaghery & Najafi, 2019). This means  that the nurse can provide care that is respectful of, and responsive to, the cultural beliefs, values, and  needs of the patient. Another way a nurse demonstrates cultural competency is by being knowledgeable  about different cultures and being able to communicate effectively with patients from different  backgrounds. The nurse should also be able to advocate for patients from minority groups and work to  eliminate health disparities. 


Purnell, L. D., & Fenkl, E. A. (Eds.). (2020). Textbook for transcultural health care: A population  approach: Cultural competence concepts in nursing care. Springer Nature. 

Sharifi, N., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Najafi, M. (2019). Cultural competence in nursing: A concept  analysis. International journal of nursing studies, 99, 103386. j.ijnurstu.2019.103


There are many methods nurses can use in gathering information on patients’ culture and it depends on the one that yield the necessary data to be use in patient care. The nurse can gather information on patient culture by utilizing the nursing process. Assessment through clinical observation, questionnaires, open conversation while taking into consideration the family role and social determinate of health findings to complete a thorough assessment. There are many cultural assessment tools like transcultural model, sunrise model, cultural competence model, and heritage assessment tool (Higginbottom et al., 2011). However, Falkner (2018) noted that the most effective method is the Heritage Assessment Tool (HAT). HAT provides information on patient’s culture, beliefs, needs by using open-ended questions on variables like beliefs system, language, and influence of acculturation (Higginbottom et al., 2011).

Cultural competence relates to better patient care as it integrates cultural awareness, cultural skill, cultural knowledge, cultural encounters, and cultural desires in patient health well-being. It takes into consideration population diversity, health disparities, health equity and hinders stigmatization, bias, and stereotyping in delivery care.

Cultural competency is act of using attitudes, knowledge, and skill to deliver culturally appropriate care to a diverse population (Loftin et al., 2013). The nurse demonstrates cultural competency in nursing practice by providing holistic care for all persons regardless of ethnicity, socioeconomic background, race, or culture, without biases, judgment, and foster respect for patient’s choice of care, social, and cultural orientation.


Higginbottom, G. M., Richter, M. S., Mogale, R. S., Ortiz, L., Young, S., & Mollel, O. (2011). Identification of nursing assessment models/tools validated in clinical practice for use with diverse ethno-cultural groups: An integrative review of the literature. BMC Nursing, 10, 16.  


Health promotion requires nurses to provide holistic care to every patient. An important part of holistic care is being culturally sensitive and including cultural preferences in the daily care plan. The nurse must “fully engage with” the patients and become “acclimated to their specific needs” (GCU, 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that “a core principle of public health is that every person should be able to reach his or her full health potential” (CDC, 2022).

Nurses can gather cultural information from patients by assessing for any cultural preferences upon admission. Admission assessments are a vital time for nurse-patient relationship building. Through active listening and open communication, nurses can ask questions that guide cultural sensitivity in an environment that promotes trust and honesty. The nurse must remember that in providing safe care to multicultural patients, “proper cultural assessment is a necessity” (GCU, 2018).

The definition of cultural competence includes “being aware of differences related to culture and adjusting plans of care accordingly as well as remaining sensitive and respectful of choices patients may make based on their culture” (GCU, 2018). It is considered a continual process through continuous education, awareness of self, and self-evaluation to holistically, culturally, and competently care for the patient (Campinha-Bacote, 2011). Different cultures hold different traditions and promoting health should incorporate those traditions and preferences to achieve optimal health.


Campinha-Bacote, J., (2011) Delivering patient-centered care in the midst of a cultural conflict: The role of cultural competence. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2). doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol16No02Man05



There are many reasons why nutrition is a central component in health promotion. First, nutrition  is essential to maintaining a healthy weight. Second, observing a healthy diet helps in reducing  vulnerability to cancer and other chronic diseases associated with poor nutrition. Third, a healthy diet  provides the nutrients needed for good health. To make healthy eating easier, people can choose foods that  are lower in calories, fat, and sugar and that contain more fiber and nutrients. The bottom line is that  nutrition is a central component in health promotion because it is essential to maintaining a healthy  weight, reducing the risk of chronic diseases, and providing the nutrients needed for good health; hence  promoting overall health. 

Some of the nutritional challenges for emerging populations include food security (access to  healthy food), lack of nutrition knowledge, and limited resources. Emerging populations may have  difficulty accessing healthy food due to economic and social barriers (Manimegalai & Ramesh, 2019).  They may also lack knowledge about nutrition and how to eat a healthy diet. Additionally, they may have  limited resources, such as time and money, to invest in a healthy diet. Besides, emerging populations are  facing a massive issue of excess or deficiency of nutrients. 

Many developing nations are facing the nutritional challenge of nutritional deficiency or the  absence of essential nutrients necessary for proper functioning of the body. Besides, nutritional excess or  an intake of nutrients that exceeds the body’s needs is a challenge. Nutritional deficiency and nutritional  excess can both play a role in disease (Oz, 2017). Nutritional deficiency can lead to several health  problems, such as anemia, osteoporosis, and stunted growth. On the other hand, nutritional excess can  cause heart disease, obesity, and other health problems.


Manimegalai, B., & Ramesh, S. (2019). Importance of good nutrition during hospitalization. Oz, H. S. (2017).

Nutrients, infectious and inflammatory diseases. Nutrients, 9(10), 1085. 10.3390/nu9101085


Nutrition is the most important aspect of health promotion because our bodies require nutrition to grow, develop, and function. Good nutrition plays an important role in disease prevention by delaying the onset of disease signs and symptoms, preventing premature death, improving quality of life, and reducing the financial burden on the healthcare system. Promoting a healthy eating pattern as part of a lifestyle has been shown to be cost-effective in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and having an optimal nutritional status has been shown to be critical in the prevention of obesity. The other aspect that nurses must consider is the nutritional challenges for emerging populations (Falkner, 2018). For example, the homeless population may lack access to nutritious food and clean water. The immigrant and refugee population may experience poverty and language barriers, and therefore may lack access to food and resources (Falkner, 2018).

Nutritional deficiency and nutritional excess play a major role in disease prevention and disease management. For example, iron deficiency can lead to anemia, iodine deficiency can lead to thyroid disorder, and calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis. Nutritional excess can lead to obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. (Falkner, 2018).

People are too busy to take good diet and nutrition, and as a result, they lack the basic needs of the daily news, resulting in various diseases, obesity, and other issues. Because people lack access to a better diet, socioeconomic factors have an impact on deficiency disorders. We are undoubtedly bombarded with contradictory information about what is better for us from a variety of legitimate and dubious sources. Emerging populations face a number of challenges when it comes to making healthy choices, including: Many low-cost meals and beverages are also high in calories, fat, and sodium, and sugar , and it has a particularly strong influence on children nutritional data that is difficult to understand and apply, as well as nutrient-dense meals that are difficult to obtain for certain segments of the population A well-balanced diet rich in essential nutrients is required to maintain a healthy body. Disease is linked to both nutritional excess and deficiency. Inactivity, as well as a high intake of refined carbohydrates and saturated fats, can all contribute to chronic inflammatory disorders such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Essential vitamin deficiencies, on the other hand, can result in stunted growth, impaired immune function, and classic illnesses such as scurvy, osteoporosis, depression, and xerophthalmia.


Falkner, A. (2018). Cultural awareness. In Grand Canyon University (Ed.),

Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum.Retrieved from


Nutrition is a key determinant of health and wellbeing for individuals and populations. Currently, malnutrition in various forms affects every country globally, with resultant adverse health, social, and economic consequences. Eating right” isn’t as easy as it sounds. Many families in the United States and elsewhere don’t have sufficient money, time, or information to make healthy nutritional choices on a daily basis. Individuals without nutritious food are at risk for developing serious chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Currently, some families are struggling with childhood obesity. Researchers have discovered that 80% of children struggling with childhood obesity will continue to struggle with obesity into adulthood. To reduce obesity and weight-related diseases like diabetes, there are lots of nutrition sessions and cooking classes on the web which can help youths and their parents navigate complex nutritional decisions,(GCU, 2018)). Through these activities, families learn not only why nutrition matters, but also how they can sustain a healthy diet with the resources and ingredients at their disposal. In recent years, there have been changes in the eating habits of individuals around the world. One is literally what he or she eats. This means that a person’s nutrition defines his or her health. Appropriate nutrition is necessary for optimal growth and development, physical activity, reproduction, recovery from illness and injury, and maintenance of health throughout the life cycle (ODPHP, 2018). A variety of health problems can occur when persons have deficits of essential nutrients or have excessive or inappropriate consumption of some nutrients. While the role of nutrition in health problems is not fully understood, epidemiologic and laboratory studies offer important insights which may help people in making food choices to enhance their prospects of attaining or maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2018b). Nutrition, physical activity, and obesity. Retrieved from